Spring Questions

Spring Interview Questions:- (60)

  What is Spring Framework?

Spring is one of the most widely used Java EE framework. Spring framework core concepts are "Dependency Injection" and "Aspect Oriented Programming".

Spring framework can be used in normal java applications also to achieve loose coupling between different components by implementing dependency injection and we can perform cross cutting tasks such as logging and authentication using spring support for aspect oriented programming.

I like spring because it provides a lot of features and different modules for specific tasks such as Spring MVC and Spring JDBC. Since it's an open source framework with a lot of online resources and active community members, working with Spring framework is easy and fun at same time.

  What are benefits of Spring Framework?

Lightweight: Spring is lightweight when it comes to size and transparency. The basic version of spring framework is around 2MB.

Inversion of control (IOC): Loose coupling is achieved in Spring, with the Inversion of Control technique. The objects give their dependencies instead of creating or looking for dependent objects.

Aspect oriented (AOP): Spring supports Aspect oriented programming and separates application business logic from system services.

Container: Spring contains and manages the life cycle and configuration of application objects.

MVC Framework: Spring's web framework is a well-designed web MVC framework, which provides a great alternative to web frameworks.

Transaction Management: Spring provides a consistent transaction management interface that can scale down to a local transaction and scale up to global transactions (JTA).

Exception Handling: Spring provides a convenient API to translate technology-specific exceptions (thrown by JDBC, Hibernate, or JDO) into consistent, unchecked exceptions.

  Name some of the important Spring Modules?

Some of the important Spring Framework modules are:

Spring Context -for dependency injection.

Spring AOP- for aspect oriented programming.

Spring DAO- for database operations using DAO pattern

Spring JDBC - for JDBC and DataSource support.

Spring ORM - for ORM tools support such as Hibernate

Spring Web Module -for creating web applications.

Spring MVC-Model-View-Controller implementation for creating web applications, web services etc.

  What do you understand by Dependency Injection?

Dependency Injection design pattern allows us to remove the hard-coded dependencies and make our application loosely coupled, extendable and maintainable. We can implement dependency injection pattern to move the dependency resolution from compile-time to runtime.

Some of the benefits of using Dependency Injection are: Separation of Concerns, Boilerplate Code reduction, Configurable components and easy unit testing.

  How do we implement DI in Spring Framework?

We can use Spring XML based as well as Annotation based configuration to implement DI in spring applications. For better understanding, please read Spring Dependency Injection example where you can learn both the ways with JUnit test case.

The post also contains sample project zip file, that you can download and play around to learn more.

  What are the benefits of using Spring Tool Suite?

We can install plugins into Eclipse to get all the features of Spring Tool Suite. However STS comes with Eclipse with some other important stuffs such as Maven support, Templates for creating different types of Spring projects and tc server for better performance with Spring applications.

The post also contains sample project zip file, that you can download and play around to learn more.

  What do you understand by Aspect Oriented Programming?

Enterprise applications have some common cross-cutting concerns that is applicable for different types of Objects and application modules, such as logging, transaction management, data validation, authentication etc.

In Object Oriented Programming, modularity of application is achieved by Classes whereas in AOP application modularity is achieved by Aspects and they are configured to cut across different classes methods.

AOP takes out the direct dependency of cross-cutting tasks from classes that is not possible in normal object oriented programming. For example, we can have a separate class for logging but again the classes will have to call these methods for logging the data.

  What is Aspect, Advice, Pointcut, JointPoint and Advice Arguments in AOP?

Aspect: Aspect is a class that implements cross-cutting concerns, such as transaction management. Aspects can be a normal class configured and then configured in Spring Bean configuration file or we can use Spring AspectJ support to declare a class as Aspect using @Aspect annotation.

Advice: Advice is the action taken for a particular join point. In terms of programming, they are methods that gets executed when a specific join point with matching pointcut is reached in the application. You can think of Advices as Spring interceptors or Servlet Filters.

Pointcut: Pointcut are regular expressions that is matched with join points to determine whether advice needs to be executed or not. Pointcut uses different kinds of expressions that are matched with the join points. Spring framework uses the AspectJ pointcut expression language for determining the join points where advice methods will be applied.

Join Point: A join point is the specific point in the application such as method execution, exception handling, changing object variable values etc. In Spring AOP a join points is always the execution of a method.

Advice Arguments: We can pass arguments in the advice methods. We can use args() expression in the pointcut to be applied to any method that matches the argument pattern. If we use this, then we need to use the same name in the advice method from where argument type is determined.

  What is the difference between Spring AOP and AspectJ AOP?

AspectJ is the industry-standard implementation for Aspect Oriented Programming whereas Spring implements AOP for some cases. Main differences between Spring AOP and AspectJ are:

1. Spring AOP is simpler to use than AspectJ because we don't need to worry about the weaving process.

2. Spring AOP supports AspectJ annotations, so if you are familiar with AspectJ then working with Spring AOP is easier.

3. Spring AOP supports only proxy-based AOP, so it can be applied only to method execution join points. AspectJ support all kinds of pointcuts.

4. One of the shortcoming of Spring AOP is that it can be applied only to the beans created through Spring Context.

  What is Spring IoC Container?

Inversion of Control (IoC) is the mechanism to achieve loose-coupling between Objects dependencies. To achieve loose coupling and dynamic binding of the objects at runtime, the objects define their dependencies that are being injected by other assembler objects. Spring IoC container is the program that injects dependencies into an object and make it ready for our use.

Spring Framework IoC container classes are part of org.springframework.beans and org.springframework.context packages and provides us different ways to decouple the object dependencies.

Some of the useful ApplicationContext implementations that we use are;

1. AnnotationConfigApplicationContext: For standalone java applications using annotations based configuration.

2. ClassPathXmlApplicationContext: For standalone java applications using XML based configuration.

3. FileSystemXmlApplicationContext: Similar to ClassPathXmlApplicationContext except that the xml configuration file can be loaded from anywhere in the file system.

4. AnnotationConfigWebApplicationContext and XmlWebApplicationContext for web applications.

  What is a Spring Bean?

Any normal java class that is initialized by Spring IoC container is called Spring Bean. We use Spring ApplicationContext to get the Spring Bean instance.

Spring IoC container manages the life cycle of Spring Bean, bean scopes and injecting any required dependencies in the bean.

  What is the importance of Spring bean configuration file?

We use Spring Bean configuration file to define all the beans that will be initialized by Spring Context. When we create the instance of Spring ApplicationContext, it reads the spring bean xml file and initialize all of them. Once the context is initialized, we can use it to get different bean instances.

Apart from Spring Bean configuration, this file also contains spring MVC interceptors, view resolvers and other elements to support annotations based configurations.

  What are different scopes of Spring Bean?

There are five scopes defined for Spring Beans.

1. singleton: Only one instance of the bean will be created for each container. This is the default scope for the spring beans. While using this scope, make sure spring bean doesn't have shared instance variables otherwise it might lead to data inconsistency issues because it's not thread-safe.

2. prototype: A new instance will be created every time the bean is requested.

3. request: This is same as prototype scope, however it's meant to be used for web applications. A new instance of the bean will be created for each HTTP request.

4. session: A new bean will be created for each HTTP session by the container.

5. global-session: This is used to create global session beans for Portlet applications. Spring Framework is extendable and we can create our own scopes too, however most of the times we are good with the scopes provided by the framework.

  What is Spring Bean life cycle?

Spring Beans are initialized by Spring Container and all the dependencies are also injected. When context is destroyed, it also destroys all the initialized beans. This works well in most of the cases but sometimes we want to initialize other resources or do some validation before making our beans ready to use. Spring framework provides support for post-initialization and pre-destroy methods in spring beans.

We can do this by two ways - by implementing InitializingBean and DisposableBean interfaces or using init-method and destroy-method attribute in spring bean configurations.

  How to get ServletContext and ServletConfig object in a Spring Bean?

There are two ways to get Container specific objects in the spring bean.

1. Implementing Spring *Aware interfaces, for these ServletContextAware and ServletConfigAware interfaces, for complete example of these aware interfaces,

2. Using @Autowired annotation with bean variable of type ServletContext and ServletConfig. They will work only in servlet container specific environment only though.Using @Autowired annotation with bean variable of type ServletContext and ServletConfig. They will work only in servlet container specific environment only though.
ServletContext servletContext;

  What is Bean wiring and @Autowired annotation?

The process of injection spring bean dependencies while initializing it called Spring Bean Wiring.

Usually it's best practice to do the explicit wiring of all the bean dependencies, but spring framework also supports autowiring. We can use @Autowired annotation with fields or methods for autowiring byType. For this annotation to work, we also need to enable annotation based configuration in spring bean configuration file. This can be done by context:annotation-config element.

  What are different types of Spring Bean autowiring?

There are four types of autowiring in Spring framework.

1. autowire byName

2. autowire byType

3. autowire by constructor

4. autowiring by @Autowired and @Qualifier annotations Prior to Spring 3.1, autowire by autodetect was also supported that was similar to autowire by constructor or byType.

  What are the different types of IoC (dependency injection)?

Constructor-based dependency injection: Constructor-based DI is accomplished when the container invokes a class constructor with a number of arguments, each representing a dependency on other class.

Setter-based dependency injection: Setter-based DI is accomplished by the container calling setter methods on your beans after invoking a no-argument constructor or no-argument static factory method to instantiate your bean.

  What are inner beans in Spring?

When a bean is only used as a property of another bean it can be declared as an inner bean.

Spring's XML-based configuration metadata provides the use of <bean/> element inside the <property/> or <constructor-arg/> elements of a bean definition, in order to define the so-called inner bean. Inner beans are always anonymous and they are always scoped as prototypes.

  Which are the important beans lifecycle methods? Can you override them?

There are two important bean lifecycle methods. The first one is setup which is called when the bean is loaded in to the container. The second method is the teardown method which is called when the bean is unloaded from the container.

The bean tag has two important attributes (init-method and destroy-method) with which you can define your own custom initialization and destroy methods. There are also the correspondive annotations(@PostConstruct and @PreDestroy).

  How can you inject a Java Collection in Spring?

Spring offers the following types of collection configuration elements:

1. The <list> type is used for injecting a list of values, in the case that duplicates are allowed.

2. The <set> type is used for wiring a set of values but without any duplicates.

3. The <map> type is used to inject a collection of name-value pairs where name and value can be of any type.

4. The <props> type can be used to inject a collection of name-value pairs where the name and value are both Strings.

  What is bean wiring?

Wiring, or else bean wiring is the case when beans are combined together within the Spring container. When wiring beans, the Spring container needs to know what beans are needed and how the container should use dependency injection to tie them together.

  What is bean auto wiring?

The Spring container is able to autowire relationships between collaborating beans. This means that it is possible to automatically let Spring resolve collaborators (other beans) for a bean by inspecting the contents of the BeanFactory without using <constructor-arg> and <property> elements.

  Explain different modes of auto wiring?

The autowiring functionality has five modes which can be used to instruct Spring container to use autowiring for dependency injection:

1. no: This is default setting. Explicit bean reference should be used for wiring.

2. byName: When autowiring byName, the Spring container looks at the properties of the beans on which autowire attribute is set to byName in the XML configuration file. It then tries to match and wire its properties with the beans defined by the same names in the configuration file.

3. byType: When autowiring by datatype, the Spring container looks at the properties of the beans on which autowire attribute is set to byType in the XML configuration file. It then tries to match and wire a property if its type matches with exactly one of the beans name in configuration file. If more than one such beans exist, a fatal exception is thrown.

4. constructor: This mode is similar to byType, but type applies to constructor arguments. If there is not exactly one bean of the constructor argument type in the container, a fatal error is raised.

5. autodetect: Spring first tries to wire using autowire by constructor, if it does not work, Spring tries to autowire by byType.

  Are there limitations with autowiring?

Limitations of autowiring are:

1. Overriding: You can still specify dependencies using <constructor-arg> and <property> settings which will always override autowiring.

2. Primitive data types: You cannot autowire simple properties such as primitives, Strings, and Classes.

3. Confusing nature: Autowiring is less exact than explicit wiring, so if possible prefer using explicit wiring.

  Does Spring Bean provide thread safety?

The default scope of Spring bean is singleton, so there will be only one instance per context. That means that all the having a class level variable that any thread can update will lead to inconsistent data. Hence in default mode spring beans are not thread-safe.

However we can change spring bean scope to request, prototype or session to achieve thread-safety at the cost of performance. It's a design decision and based on the project requirements.

  What is a Controller in Spring MVC?

Just like MVC design pattern, Controller is the class that takes care of all the client requests and send them to the configured resources to handle it. In Spring MVC,

org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet is the front controller class that initializes the context based on the spring beans configurations.

A Controller class is responsible to handle different kind of client requests based on the request mappings. We can create a controller class by using @Controller annotation. Usually it's used with @RequestMapping annotation to define handler methods for specific URI mapping.

  What's the difference between @Component, @Controller, @Repository and @Service annotations in Spring?

1. @Component is used to indicate that a class is a component. These classes are used for auto detection and configured as bean, when annotation based configurations are used.

2. @Controller is a specific type of component, used in MVC applications and mostly used with RequestMapping annotation.

3. @Repository annotation is used to indicate that a component is used as repository and a mechanism to store/retrieve/search data. We can apply this annotation with DAO pattern implementation classes.

4. @Service is used to indicate that a class is a Service. Usually the business facade classes that provide some services are annotated with this.

  What is DispatcherServlet and ContextLoaderListener?

DispatcherServlet is the front controller in the Spring MVC application and it loads the spring bean configuration file and initialize all the beans that are configured. If annotations are enabled, it also scans the packages and configure any bean annotated with @Component, @Controller, @Repository or @Service annotations.

ContextLoaderListener is the listener to start up and shut down Spring's root WebApplicationContext. It's important functions are to tie up the lifecycle of ApplicationContext to the lifecycle of the ServletContext and to automate the creation of ApplicationContext. We can use it to define shared beans that can be used across different spring contexts.

  What is a MultipartResolver and when its used?

MultipartResolver interface is used for uploading files - CommonsMultipartResolver and StandardServletMultipartResolver are two implementations provided by spring framework for file uploading. By default there are no multipart resolvers configured but to use them for uploading files, all we need to define a bean named "multipartResolver" with type as MultipartResolver in spring bean configurations.

Once configured, any multipart request will be resolved by the configured MultipartResolver and pass on a wrapped HttpServletRequest. Then it's used in the controller class to get the file and process it.

  How to handle exceptions in Spring MVC Framework?

Spring MVC Framework provides following ways to help us achieving robust exception handling.

1. Controller Based - We can define exception handler methods in our controller classes. All we need is to annotate these methods with @ExceptionHandler annotation.

2. Global Exception Handler - Exception Handling is a cross-cutting concern and Spring provides @ControllerAdvice annotation that we can use with any class to define our global exception handler.

3. HandlerExceptionResolver implementation - For generic exceptions, most of the times we serve static pages. Spring Framework provides HandlerExceptionResolver interface that we can implement to create global exception handler. The reason behind this additional way to define global exception handler is that Spring framework also provides default implementation classes that we can define in our spring bean configuration file to get spring framework exception handling benefits.

  How to create ApplicationContext in a Java Program?

There are following ways to create spring context in a standalone java program.

1. AnnotationConfigApplicationContext: If we are using Spring in standalone java applications and using annotations for Configuration, then we can use this to initialize the container and get the bean objects.

2. ClassPathXmlApplicationContext: If we have spring bean configuration xml file in standalone application, then we can use this class to load the file and get the container object.

3. FileSystemXmlApplicationContext: This is similar to ClassPathXmlApplicationContext except that the xml configuration file can be loaded from anywhere in the file system.

  What are the minimum configurations needed to create Spring MVC application?

For creating a simple Spring MVC application, we would need to do following tasks.

1. Add spring-context and spring-webmvc dependencies in the project.

2. Configure DispatcherServlet in the web.xml file to handle requests through spring container.

3. Spring bean configuration file to define beans, if using annotations then it has to be configured here. Also we need to configure view resolver for view pages.

4. Controller class with request mappings defined to handle the client requests.

  How would you relate Spring MVC Framework to MVC architecture?

As the name suggests Spring MVC is built on top of Model-View-Controller architecture. DispatcherServlet is the Front Controller in the Spring MVC application that takes care of all the incoming requests and delegate it to different controller handler methods.

Model can be any Java Bean in the Spring Framework, just like any other MVC framework Spring provides automatic binding of form data to java beans. We can set model beans as attributes to be used in the view pages.

  How to achieve localization in Spring MVC applications?

Spring provides excellent support for localization or i18n through resource bundles. Basis steps needed to make our application localized are:

1. Creating message resource bundles for different locales, such as messages_en.properties, messages_fr.properties etc.

2. Defining messageSource bean in the spring bean configuration file of type ResourceBundleMessageSource or ReloadableResourceBundleMessageSource.

3. For change of locale support, define localeResolver bean of type CookieLocaleResolver and configure LocaleChangeInterceptor interceptor.

4. Use spring:message element in the view pages with key names, DispatcherServlet picks the corresponding value and renders the page in corresponding locale and return as response.

  What are some of the important Spring annotations you have used?

Some of the Spring annotations that I have used in my project are:

1. @Controller -for controller classes in Spring MVC project.

2. @RequestMapping - for configuring URI mapping in controller handler methods. This is a very important annotation, so you should go through Spring MVC RequestMapping Annotation Examples

3. @ResponseBody - for sending Object as response, usually for sending XML or JSON data as response.

4. @PathVariable - for mapping dynamic values from the URI to handler method arguments.

5. @Autowired - for autowiring dependencies in spring beans.

6. @Qualifier - with @Autowired annotation to avoid confusion when multiple instances of bean type is present.

7. @Service - for service classes.

8. @Scope - for configuring scope of the spring bean.

9. @Configuration, @ComponentScan and @Bean - for java based configurations.

10. AspectJ annotations for configuring aspects and advices, @Aspect, @Before, @After, @Around, @Pointcut etc.

  Are Singleton beans thread safe in Spring Framework?

Spring framework does not do anything under the hood concerning the multi-threaded behavior of a singleton bean. It is the developer's responsibility to deal with concurrency issue and thread safety of the singleton bean.

While practically, most spring beans have no mutable state (e.g. Service and DAO clases), and as such are trivially thread safe. But if your bean has mutable state (e.g. View Model Objects), so you need to ensure thread safety. The most easy and obvious solution for this problem is to change bean scope of mutable beans from "singleton" to "prototype".

  Explain different modes of bean autowiring?

There are five auto wiring modes in spring framework. Lets discuss them one by one.

1. no: This option is default for spring framework and it means that autowiring is OFF. You have to explicitly set the dependencies using tags in bean definitions.

2. byName: This option enables the dependency injection based on bean names. When autowiring a property in bean, property name is used for searching a matching bean definition in configuration file. If such bean is found, it is injected in property. If no such bean is found, a error is raised.

3. byType: This option enables the dependency injection based on bean types. When autowiring a property in bean, property's class type is used for searching a matching bean definition in configuration file. If such bean is found, it is injected in property. If no such bean is found, a error is raised.

4. constructor: Autowiring by constructor is similar to byType, but applies to constructor arguments. In autowire enabled bean, it will look for class type of constructor arguments, and then do a autowire by type on all constructor arguments. Please note that if there isn't exactly one bean of the constructor argument type in the container, a fatal error is raised.

5. autodetect: Autowiring by autodetect uses either of two modes i.e. constructor or byType modes. First it will try to look for valid constructor with arguments, If found the constructor mode is chosen. If there is no constructor defined in bean, or explicit default no-args constructor is present, the autowire byType mode is chosen.

  Difference between constructor injection and setter injection?

Please find below the noticeable differences:

1. In Setter Injection, partial injection of dependencies can possible, means if we have 3 dependencies like int, string, long, then its not necessary to inject all values if we use setter injection. If you are not inject it will takes default values for those primitives. In constructor injection, partial injection of dependencies is not possible, because for calling constructor we must pass all the arguments right, if not so we may get error.

2. Setter Injection will overrides the constructor injection value, provided if we write setter and constructor injection for the same property. But, constructor injection cannot overrides the setter injected values. It's obvious because constructors are called to first to create the instance.

3. Using setter injection you can not guarantee that certain dependency is injected or not, which means you may have an object with incomplete dependency. On other hand constructor Injection does not allow you to construct object, until your dependencies are ready.

4. In constructor injection, if Object A and B are dependent each other i.e A is depends on B and vice-versa, Spring throws ObjectCurrentlyInCreationException while creating objects of A and B because A object cannot be created until B is created and vice-versa. So spring can resolve circular dependencies through setter-injection because Objects are constructed before setter methods invoked.

  What are the different types of events in spring framework?

Spring's ApplicationContext provides the functionality to support events and listeners in code. We can create beans that listen for events which are published through our ApplicationContext. Event handling in the ApplicationContext is provided through the ApplicationEvent class and ApplicationListener interface. So if a bean implements the ApplicationListener, then every time an ApplicationEvent gets published to the ApplicationContext, that bean is notified.

Spring provides the following 5 standard events:

1. ContextRefreshedEvent : This event is published when the ApplicationContext is either initialized or refreshed. This can also be raised using the refresh() method on the ConfigurableApplicationContext interface.

2. ContextStartedEvent : This event is published when the ApplicationContext is started using the start() method on the ConfigurableApplicationContext interface. You can poll your database or you can re/start any stopped application after receiving this event.

3. ContextStoppedEvent : This event is published when the ApplicationContext is stopped using the stop() method on the ConfigurableApplicationContext interface. You can do required house keeping work after receiving this event.

4. ContextClosedEvent : This event is published when the ApplicationContext is closed using the close() method on the ConfigurableApplicationContext interface. A closed context reaches its end of life; it cannot be refreshed or restarted.

5. RequestHandledEvent : This is a web-specific event telling all beans that an HTTP request has been serviced.

  Difference between FileSystemResource and ClassPathResource?

In FileSystemResource you need to give path of spring-config.xml (Spring Configuration) file relative to your project or the absolute location of the file.

In ClassPathResource spring looks for the file using ClassPath so spring-config.xml should be included in classpath. If spring-config.xml is in "src" so we can give just its name because src is in classpath path by default.

In one sentence, ClassPathResource looks in the class path and FileSystemResource looks in the file system.

  Name some of the design patterns used in Spring Framework?

There are loads of different design patterns used, but there are a few obvious ones:

Spring provides the following 5 standard events:

1. Proxy - used heavily in AOP, and remoting.

2. Singleton - beans defined in spring config files are singletons by default.

3. Template method - used extensively to deal with boilerplate repeated code e.g. RestTemplate, JmsTemplate, JpaTemplate.

4. Front Controller - Spring provides DispatcherServlet to ensure an incoming request gets dispatched to your controllers.

5. View Helper - Spring has a number of custom JSP tags, and velocity macros, to assist in separating code from presentation in views.

6. Dependency injection - Center to the whole BeanFactory / ApplicationContext concepts.

7. Factory pattern - BeanFactory for creating instance of an object.

  What are the benefits of the Spring Framework's transaction management?

1. It provides a consistent programming model across different transaction APIs such as JTA, JDBC, Hibernate, JPA, and JDO.

2. It provides a simpler API for programmatic transaction management than a number of complex transaction APIs such as JTA.

3. It supports declarative transaction management.

4. It integrates very well with Spring's various data access abstractions.

  How to upload file in Spring MVC Application?

Spring provides built-in support for uploading files through MultipartResolver interface implementations.

It's very easy to use and requires only configuration changes to get it working. Obviously we would need to write controller handler method to handle the incoming file and process it.

  How to validate form data in Spring Web MVC Framework?

Spring supports JSR-303 annotation based validations as well as provide Validator interface that we can implement to create our own custom validator. For using JSR-303 based validation, we need to annotate bean variables with the required validations.

for custom validator implementation, we need to configure it in the controller class.

  What is Spring MVC Interceptor and how to use it?

Spring MVC Interceptors are like Servlet Filters and allow us to intercept client request and process it. We can intercept client request at three places - preHandle, postHandle and afterCompletion.

We can create spring interceptor by implementing HandlerInterceptor interface or by extending abstract class HandlerInterceptorAdapter.

We need to configure interceptors in the spring bean configuration file. We can define an interceptor to intercept all the client requests or we can configure it for specific URI mapping too.

  What is Spring JdbcTemplate class and how to use it?

Spring Framework provides excellent integration with JDBC API and provides JdbcTemplate utility class that we can use to avoid bolier-plate code from our database operations logic such as Opening/Closing Connection, ResultSet, PreparedStatement etc.

  What is Spring DAO?

Spring DAO support is provided to work with data access technologies like JDBC, Hibernate in a consistent and easy way. For example we have JdbcDaoSupport, HibernateDaoSupport, JdoDaoSupport and JpaDaoSupport for respective technologies.

Spring DAO also provides consistency in exception hierarchy and we don't need to catch specific exceptions.

  How to integrate Spring and Hibernate Frameworks?

We can use Spring ORM module to integrate Spring and Hibernate frameworks, if you are using Hibernate 3+ where SessionFactory provides current session, then you should avoid using HibernateTemplate or HibernateDaoSupport classes and better to use DAO pattern with dependency injection for the integration.

Also Spring ORM provides support for using Spring declarative transaction management, so you should utilize that rather than going for hibernate boiler-plate code for transaction management.

  What is Spring Security?

Spring security framework focuses on providing both authentication and authorization in java applications. It also takes care of most of the common security vulnerabilities such as CSRF attack.

It's very beneficial and easy to use Spring security in web applications, through the use of annotations such as @EnableWebSecurity.

  Which Transaction management type is more preferable?

Most users of the Spring Framework choose declarative transaction management because it is the option with the least impact on application code, and hence is most consistent with the ideals of a non-invasive lightweight container.

Declarative transaction management is preferable over programmatic transaction management though it is less flexible than programmatic transaction management, which allows you to control transactions through your code.

  Explain AOP

Aspect-oriented programming, or AOP, is a programming technique that allows programmers to modularize crosscutting concerns, or behavior that cuts across the typical divisions of responsibility, such as logging and transaction management.

  What is the difference between concern and cross-cutting concern in Spring AOP

The Concern is behavior we want to have in a module of an application. A Concern may be defined as a functionality we want to implement.

The cross-cutting concern is a concern which is applicable throughout the application and it affects the entire application. For example, logging, security and data transfer are the concerns which are needed in almost every module of an application, hence they are cross-cutting concerns.

  Join point

The join point represents a point in an application where we can plug-in an AOP aspect. It is the actual place in the application where an action will be taken using Spring AOP framework.


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